A Closer Look At Noopept:

The Elite Nootropic Supplement

Fact: Humans are the most intelligent animals on the planet.

The brain is by far the most powerful human organ, with very little competition found throughout nature. A current evolutionary theory has suggested that human beings have sacrificed other advantages such as increased muscle mass, in order to fuel the brain further. We may not have the strength and agility of our primate cousins, but we can sure think.

You only have to look at the technological achievements in recent years to see that humanity has always pushed this intelligence as far as it could. With the likes of Stephen Hawking making the rest of us look dumb, it’s no wonder nootropics are increasing in popularity. From university students to Wall Street economists, IT experts to engineers, there’s a wide range of individuals benefiting from the once colloquially named ‘smart drugs’.

With little to no side-effects, the development of nootropics seems almost too good to be true. Amongst the nootropics currently used to improve brain function, Noopept has become an established named since it’s development in the 1970’s. So what exactly does Noopept do?

Benefits of using Noopept:

Antioxidant properties – First and foremost are the neuroprotective properties of Noopept. Antioxidants help to protect cells from harmful free radicals, and their use has been noted as a protective agent against neurological disease. Noopept acts as an antioxidant, protecting the brain from cell damage and supporting overall brain health. Current research also suggests that Noopept may be useful in the treatment of damaged brain cells caused by Alzheimer’s Disease and other diseases of the brain.

Memory function – One of the key features that allows us to learn is our memory. A good memory and good recall help to make the most of the learning experience. Noopept is known to increase memory function and therefore is often used as a learning aid.

Mental energy – Attention span is another key part of learning. Noopept increases mental energy, bringing with it mental clarity and an increase in focus. This allows users to concentrate on a subject for a longer period of time, even if it’s really boring.

Communication – Noopept develops new synapses within the brain, allowing for more effective communication within the brain itself. An increase in communication between the two hemispheres of the brain has been documented, allowing for an improvement in speech communication. A greater recall of vocabulary can increase articulation.

How does Noopept work?

In order to answer this question, we need to look at what constitutes good brain health, mental clarity and memory function.

Brain and Muscle

First, we should look at how brain function is increased generally. Whilst the brain is not a muscle, more a collection of neurons and proteins, we can compare the two when it comes to training. Muscle training relies on repeated actions in order to strengthen the muscle fibres. Brain training relies on firing neurons through synapses repeatedly in order to strengthen the connection .

The key difference between muscle training and brain training is that muscle fibres are damaged during the workout, and the healing process is responsible for increasing muscle mass by repairing damaged cells. Brain cells are not damaged during memory formation, however proteins are formed within the nerve cells.

It is for this reason that students are told to treat the brain as a muscle. Learning subject material by reading, listening and problem-solving all involves transmissions through the neuron synapses and patterns of synapse behavior. These patterns can be trained like muscles, with increased use leading to better use.

Brain energy for mental clarity

Energy is required for quite literally everything, particularly in the brain. Most of the energy in the brain is used to process information and for neuronal computation. However nerve growth, the formation of synapses, cellular maintenance and neurotransmitter generation all require energy. This energy is provided solely by glucose because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is only permeable to a select range of substances. Oxygen and some other gases can pass through the barrier as they have the ability to diffuse across membranes. The BBB also allows glucose to enter the brain, and many other molecules require a glucose-transporter to gain entry. The human brain requires a lot of energy in constant supply, using about 20% of the total energy derived from glucose. The glucose levels in the brain are therefore very tightly regulated, and it has been noted that many brain disorders are a result of a disruption in glucose regulation.

Glutamate, whilst being a naturally occurring amino-acid, is a common neurotransmitter. Chemical signals pass between neurons due to glutamate transition. It is a vital molecule, however high levels of glutamate can reduce mental clarity and cause misfiring of neurons.

As with any other organ, a healthy oxygen supply is also vital for brain function. In order to achieve ideal mental clarity, it is important that glucose uptake and oxygen supply are adequate and that high levels of glutamate are avoided. Noopept increases both oxygen and glucose uptake within the brain.

Long-Term Potentiation

Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) occurs as synapses are repeatedly used, or frequently stimulated. Essentially the more that individual and groups of synapses are used, the easier they become to use. Signals are carried faster and more effectively. Increased use means better use. Better still: practice makes perfect.


When long-term memories are formed, patterns of activity between synapses increase the level of signal transmission and the strength of said synapses. LTP is an outcome that occurs as a result of this process. That is where the NMDA and AMPA receptors come in.

NMDA receptors and AMPA receptors

NMDA and AMPA receptors are glutamate receptors in the brain that work together, binding to one another to create synaptic pathways. The AMPA receptors are crucial for the firing of neurons however most do not conduct calcium. Conversely, NMDA receptors do not contribute much to neuron firing, but rather they bind to AMPA they can allow calcium ions to flow through. In this manner, NMDA and AMPA receptors complement one another in order to increase calcium ion concentration within brain cells. Noopept can be used as a supplement to increase NMDA and AMPA receptor site densities thus leading to increased capacity for transmission.

Put simply, noopept stimulates both NMDA and AMPA receptors. An increased stimulation means that more NMDAR/AMPAR pathways open up, increasing the flow of calcium ions, and therefore supporting improved memory and learning.

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a protein which binds to receptors in the brain, preserving nerve morphology and encouraging growth, as well as enhancing the generation of synapses. It also ensures that neuronal activity remains elevated by blocking the inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, as well as disrupting other complexes that inhibit greater synapse formation. In short, BDNF ensures that nerves grow and that more synapses are created.

The stimulation of NMDA and AMPA receptors can be compared to the action between BDNF and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Studies have shown that BDNF works as a neuroprotective by inducing the mTOR pathway and is vital for protein synthesis within the brain. Deficiency of BDNF has been observed in Alzheimer’s Disease and in patients with impaired cognitive ability.

The way BDNF and mTOR produce proteins in the brain is similar to the way Noopept helps memory synthesis through the glutamate receptors. Though memories are based on the connections and patterns of synapse activity, BDNF and mTOR work cooperatively to synthesise brain proteins in the same way that synapse activity and calcium ion flow are improved using Noopept.

Not only that, Noopept has also been shown to stimulate BDNF, therefore contributing both to protein synthesis and increased signal transmission. Taking into account that both glutamate receptors and BDNF are vital for memory function and learning, and the fact that Noopept stimulates all three, it is clear that noopept is an effective nootropic.


Acetylcholine is an important compound which acts as a neurotransmitter responsible for contracting muscles. It also stimulates short-term memory, therefore is vital for muscle function, cognition and memory. Acetylcholine moves across the synapse in order to bind to a receptor, where it is then broken down by an enzyme. Though an abundance is usually present in the brain, studies have revealed that levels of acetylcholine decrease with age, which can lead to Alzheimer’s Disease or memory loss.

Noopept has been shown to have a cholinosensitizing effect on the brain, meaning that it increases the delivery of acetylcholine to the neurons. By this method, Noopept indirectly has a beneficial effect on short-term memory by increasing the availability of acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine levels can be increased within the brain using supplements. One such supplement useful for this task is choline.


Stacking is a process of using multiple supplements that work together in order to improve function. Body-builders stack supplements in order to increase endurance and recovery. Nootropics users combine their supplements with others with the intention of improving nootropic efficiency. One common stack amongst nootropic users is noopept and choline.

Choline is a macronutrient important for a wide range of functions throughout the body, one of which is brain development and function. Choline is transported through the blood-brain barriers by glucose, where it then combined with acetyl coenzyme A, synthesizing acetylcholine. As previously mentioned, acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter.

By increasing choline using supplementation, more acetylcholine is available in the brain. As noopept increases the delivery of acetylcholine, the two molecules work in tandem to improve short-term memory function, thus making it easier to learn.

Cognitive function, concentration and memory are improved by using the choline/noopept stack, all things that are important when learning. There are little to no side effects when used together. As an added bonus, users of this stack have reported an increase in positive mood and a reduction in headaches. There have also been reports of an increase in mental clarity.

Noopept vs Piracetam

Piracetam was the first nootropic to be developed back in 1964. As it was the first of its kind, it is commonly used to compare to current nootropics on the market, all of which mirror piracetam’s abilities. So what’s the difference?

Piracetam has been the historic choice of nootropic purely because it has been around the longest, and has generated almost 100% positive feedback. Nootropics that followed built upon the research on piracetam in an attempt to increase efficiency. Noopept has great feedback also, only with a smaller customer base. It has been noted that for some users, noopept actually works better than piracetam, particularly when stacked with other supplements such as choline.

The two nootropics are both currently used with similar intentions: They both help improve memory function and mental clarity, as well as speeding up recall; They both improve concentration without feeling like a stimulant; and both nootropics have also been reported to give a boost to positive mood.

The dosage of noopept is incredibly low, only 10-30mg compared to piracetam’s 1200-4800mg. This stems down to the fact that piracetam does not have a high bioavailability, so much of the molecule is wasted. Noopept however does not go to waste, nearly the whole dose of Noopept reaches the brain.

With the pressures and time constraints of modern life, dosing experience can have an affect on regular use of supplements. The difference in dose amount between the two nootropics translates to a difference in dosing experience. Users of piracetam have reported a bad taste resulting from unencapsulated piracetam mixed with water. This can be combated by putting the piracetam powder into capsules by hand, however this is time-consuming. When considering that users take up to 3 doses a day, it can be a dreaded dosing experience. Noopept however, with its low dosing requirements, leads to a positive experience.

In the end, it comes down to personal choice. With the high bioavailability making it so efficient, and its synergistic relationship with other supplements, Noopept is certainly the nootropic of choice for many.

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