Noopept 20MG

Molecular FormulaC17H22N2O4

Average mass318.368 Da

Monoisotopic mass318.157959 Da

Ethyl 1-(phenylacetyl)-L-prolylglycinate

Memory Benefits

Noopept sensitizes acetylcholine receptors, which perform memory encoding and memory retrieval functions. Noopept stimulates the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus leading to more effective signaling between neurons, including memory retrieval.

Learning Benefits

Through the stimulation of  AMPA and NMDA receptors, Noopept enhances long-term potentiation (LTP), widely acknowledged as a primary mechanism underlying learning and memory.

Creative Benefits

Noopept Increases communication between the two hemispheres of the brain. This is hypothesized to increase the synthesis of abstract ideas and creative thinking.

Mood Benefits

Noopept possesses anxiolytic properties due to its activation of dopamine receptors D2 and D3. Another effect of Noopept supplementation is the enhancement of sensory perceptions due to the sensitizing of acetylcholine receptors.

Learn More About Noopept

Noopept is an elite Nootropic which produces unparalleled effects. Noopept revitalizes neuroprotective processes[2] in the user through the stimulation of the essential proteins Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF).[1] NGF assumes a vital role in neuronal development, neuronal survival, and neuronal regeneration. BDNF connects to receptors in the synapses among neurons that result in increased electrical power and more effective signaling between neurons. BDNF enables new neurons to branch out, while at the same time preventing degradation of existing neurons. The synapses in which BDNF bind to will change and adapt with time, in response to experience, an attribute known as synaptic plasticity. BDNF helps regulate synaptic plasticity, which is critical for learning and memory.

At the same time, Noopept stimulates the AMPA[3] and NMDA receptors as well as their pathways. AMPA receptors are responsible for most of the fast excitatory synaptic transmission which allows for memories to be retrieved. Stimulation of NMDA receptors is imperative for controlling synaptic plasticity and memory function. Long Term Potentiation (LTP), implicated as a primary mechanism behind learning and memory, occurs after AMPA and NMDA receptor stimulation that can be induced by Noopept. Furthermore, LTP is a primary mechanism which underlies learning and memory. Noopept leads to increased communication between the two hemispheres of the brain. This is hypothesized to improve language fluidity and the synthesis of abstract ideas. Also, Noopept possesses anxiolytic properties due to its activation of the dopamine receptors: D2 and D3. These receptors are associated with not only reward and reinforcement mechanisms, but also the working memory. Lastly, Noopept induces a sensitizing effect of acetylcholine (ACh) processes, while also stimulating the delivery of ACh to neurons. ACh is a neurotransmitter that prompts sustained attention[4], enhancement of sensory perceptions[5], and responsiveness to sensory stimuli. With supplementation of a high-quality choline source, such as CDP Choline, Noopept will induce significant cognitive enhancement. In short, Noopept is a powerful nootropic which delivers increased cognitive function through multiple mechanisms.

CDP Choline 400MG

Molecular FormulaC14H29N4O12P2

Average mass507.347 Da

Monoisotopic mass507.125183 Da

[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-amino-2-oxo-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl phosphono hydrogen phosphate; 2-hydroxyethyl-trimethyl-ammonium

Learning Benefits

CDP choline increases acetylcholine synthesis leading to optimal levels. Acetylcholine helps to encode new memories of learned material. Acetylcholine also prevents existing memories from interfering with new memory encoding while forming memories.

Memory Benefits

Studies have shown that CDP choline can improve memory recall as well as verbal memory.

Focus Benefits

CDP choline increases acetylcholine synthesis, a neurotransmitter that induces sustained attention. CDP Choline also enhances dopaminergic signaling which results in a heightened attention to detail.

Learn More About Citicoline

CDP Choline is a nootropic compound which plays an important role in cellular metabolism. After ingestion, CDP Choline is hydrolyzed into choline and cytidine. Cytidine will then be converted to uridine. The choline and uridine will pass through the blood-brain barrier and turn back into CDP Choline. CDP choline simultaneously increases ACh synthesis and enhances signaling of ACh receptors. ACh is a neurotransmitter that induces sustained attention[4], enhancement of sensory perceptions[5], and responsiveness to sensory stimuli. Studies have concluded that CDP Choline supplementation can improve attention as well as improve memory retention at doses of 250-500 mg.[16] Another noteworthy benefit of CDP Choline is the production of increased levels of Phosphatidylcholine (PC).[18][19][20] PC forms part of brain cell membranes and is responsible for membrane-mediated cell signaling. The highlight of PC is its ability to act as a choline reservoir from which ACh can be discharged when necessary.[21] Additionally, CDP Choline helps to restore phospholipid levels, specifically cardiolipin[22] and sphingomyelin. Cardiolipin is an important component of the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is essential for the optimal function of numerous enzymes that are involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism and is responsible for importing proteins into the mitochondrial matrix. Sphingomyelin is found in the membranes myelin sheath that surrounds some nerve cell axons. Sphingomyelin, therefore, acts as an insulator of nerve fibers as well as an activator of universal signaling pathways. CDP Choline also stimulates glutathione (GSH), a key antioxidant that promotes neuroprotective properties.

CDP Choline not only enhances dopaminergic signaling but also increases dopamine receptor site density.[17] Dopamine is most responsible for cognitive alertness. Norepinephrine, another neurotransmitter stimulated by CDP Choline, is most responsible for vigilant concentration. The noradrenergic neurons originate in the Locus Coeruleus, located in the brain stem. Several studies have implicated the LC-NE system in eliciting the P300, a cortical event related potential that responds to environmental stimuli with behaviorally relevant, motivational, or attention grabbing properties. The P300 may reflect updating of prior knowledge regarding stimuli for accurate and efficient decision making. Lastly, CDP Choline increases cerebral blood flow.[23]

Bacopa Monnieri 250MG

 chemical structure of bacopa monnieri bacopasides

Learning Benefits

In studies, Bacopa monnieri  has proven to boost the memory of learned material as well as retention speed.The method by which Bacopa monnieri improves memory formation is via the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPHZ) and heightening of serotonin transporter (SERT) expression.

Memory Benefits

Bacopa monnieri improves learning by causing the proliferation of dendritic intersections. This results in improved information processing or learning efficiency. The nerve ending growth, stimulated by Bacopa monnieri , directly results in enhanced neuronal communication.

Mood Benefits

Bacopa monnieri  is a known adaptogen capable of alleviating stress. Furthermore, it has been noted that during times of chronic stress Bacopa monnieri supplementation prevents the reduction of dopamine and serotonin levels.

Neuro Protection

Bacopa monnieri Raises levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), preventing DNA mutation. Bacopa monnieri also increases Glutathione Peroxidase which provides protection from oxidative damage.

Learn More About Bacopa Monnieri

Bacopa Monnieri is a nootropic herb that has been historically utilized as part of a customary regimen for longevity and Intellectual Improvement by the people of India. The benefits of Bacopa Monnieri supplementation are far reaching and very well documented. A powerful benefit triggered by Bacopa Monnieri is the proliferation of dendritic Intersections caused by the growth of nerve endings.[7] In other words, when more neural pathways cross, the result is more efficient processing of Information input (learning) and easier recall of information stored (memory).[8] This benefit has been noted in animal studies after 4-6 weeks of supplementation. The nerve ending growth, stimulated by Bacopa Monnieri, directly results in enhanced neuronal communication. In studies, Bacopa Monnieri has proven to boost the memory of learned material as well as increase retention speed.[9] The method by which Bacopa Monnieri improves memory formation is via the enzyme Tryptophan Hydroxylase (TPHZ) and heightening serotonin transporter (SERT) expression.[6] Another benefit associated with Bacopa Monnieri supplementation is increased cerebral blood flow.[15] Bacopa Monnieri is a known adaptogen capable of alleviating stress when pre-loaded.[10] Bacopa Monnieri supplementation has been found to lower levels of HSP70 (a stress biomarker) in all areas of the brain, especially the hippocampus. It is believed Bacopa Monnieri provokes the stress response, preparing the brain to better manage perceived stress.[11] Furthermore, it has been noted that during times of chronic stress Bacopa Monnieri supplementation prevents the reduction of dopamine and serotonin levels.[12] A study using 320 mg of Bacopa Monnieri extract proved to increase performance in a cognitive demand battery test.[13] The results showed an extended consistency of cognitive performance. Bacopa Monnieri certainly offers significant antioxidant effects as well. In animal studies, Bacopa Monnieri causes raised levels of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase after three weeks of supplementation.[14] The levels were raised in various brain regions including the hippocampus, Frontal cortex, and striatum. Superoxide Dismutase detoxifies Superoxide, in turn preventing attacks on enzymes and DNA mutation, while Glutathione Peroxidase provides protection from oxidative damage.

Sulbutiamine 300MG

Molecular FormulaC32H46N8O6S2

Average mass702.888 Da

Monoisotopic mass702.298157 Da

Disulfanediylbis(2Z)-2-{[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl](formyl)amino}-2-pentene-3,5-diyl bis(2-methylpropanoate)

Energy Benefits

Sulbutiamine has been used to treat chronic fatigue and shows strong results of improving fatigue in studies. Sulbutiamine increases the availability of Thiamine Triphosphate (THTP), which plays an important role in cell energy metabolism.

Focus Benefits

Sulbutiamine is upregulated through the RAS, which assists the brain in transitioning to periods of high attention. In animal studies, utilizing Sulbutiamine, subjects were able to score better on operant conditioning and object recognition tests.

Memory Benefits

In studies, Sulbutiamine supplementation has been correlated with greater retention of memory. Sulbutiamine potentiates glutamatergic activity in the prefrontal cortex, delivering increased memory functionality.

Regeneration

Sulbutiamine Increases dopamine D1 receptor site density which causes neuronal growth. Dopamine receptor sites may have been depleted from drug and alcohol use.

Learn More About Sulbutiamine

Sulbutiamine is a synthetic variant of thiamine (Vitamin B1), composed of two B1 molecules bound together, which crosses the brain blood barrier with ease. The metabolism of Sulbutiamine in the brain increases levels of thiamine. Sulbutiamine is currently hypothesized to be upregulated through the Reticular Activating System (RAS) in the brain.[27] The RAS mediates transitions from periods of relaxed wakefulness to high attention. One result of Sulbutiamine supplementation is the potentiation of cholinergic activity in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is responsible for consolidating short and long term memory, spatial navigation, as well as casting meaning on one’s experiences. In one study, upon administration of Sulbutiamine, mice displayed greater retention of memory.[25] Another benefit associated with Sulbutiamine is the potentiation of glutamatergic activity in the prefrontal cortex, delivering increased memory function.[24] Increased glutamatergic transmission through the cingulate and prefrontal cortices, credited with influencing decision organization and strategy has been observed from Sulbutiamine supplementation. Furthermore, Sulbutiamine increases dopamine D1 receptor site density, which causes neuronal growth.[28] In other studies utilizing Sulbutiamine, mice were able to score better on operant conditioning and object recognition tests.[25] Sulbutiamine increases the availability of THTP, directly contributing to the phosphorylation of proteins and activation of high conductance chloride channels.[30] Thiamine Triphosphate (THTP), an integral component of synaptosomal membranes, plays an important role in cell energy metabolism.[29] Sulbutiamine has been used to treat chronic fatigue, returning strong results in a study of 58 patients with  Multiple Sclerosis (MS).The improvement was noted regarding fatigue in 91.37% of persons tested.[26] Sulbutiamine has even been shown to increase visual acuity.

Alcar 300MG

Molecular FormulaC9H17NO4

Average mass203.236 Da

Monoisotopic mass203.115753 Da

3-Acetoxy-4-(trimethylammonio)butanoate

Energy Benefits

ALCAR supplementation improves the quality and quantity of mitochondria resulting in an improvement of energy generation at a cellular level. ALCAR increases glucose availability and ATP which are both sources of energy.

Neuroprotection

ALCAR prolongs the enzyme superoxide dismutase and has been noted to reduce oxidative damage associated with alcohol consumption.

Memory Benefits

ALCAR contributes the necessary acetyl group required for acetylcholine synthesis. Therefore it supports optimal acetylcholine levels, which are impactful on memory encoding and retrieval.

Learn More About ALCAR

Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR) is an Amino acid able to cross the brain blood barrier that increases energy production via the mitochondrial metabolic processes. Through disassociation of its acetyl group ALCAR increases Acetylcholine synthesis by the contribution of this required precursor.[31] For this reason, ALCAR and CDP choline are commonly stacked to achieve optimal Acetylcholine Synthesis. ALCAR supplementation increases the quantity and quality of Mitochondria while easing the transportation of fat into cells that require it for power.[33] ALCAR improves cristae at a structural level by increasing 26/31 proteins that are affected by aging.[36] Mitochondrial cristae are folds of the inner membrane, which allow greater surface area for processes to occur across the membrane, effectively supporting ATP production through cellular respiration. ALCAR affects energy generation at a foundational level by increasing glucose availability, inositol, and ATP. ATP is the primary coenzyme used for intracellular energy transfer. ALCAR is an effective anti-aging agent which has been successful in increasing capacity for physical and cognitive activity in Centurions.[35] Furthermore, ALCAR produces serious antioxidant properties, preventing oxidative stress by prolonging the powerful enzyme superoxide dismutase. Superoxide dismutase detoxifies superoxide, In turn preventing attacks on enzymes and DNA mutation. ALCAR has been noted with the ability to reduce oxidative damage associated with alcohol consumption as well as reduce excitotoxicity.[34] Finally, ALCAR has been shown to be synergistic with caffeine for sustained energy.[32]

Caffeine 150MG

Molecular FormulaC8H10N4O2

Average mass194.191 Da

Monoisotopic mass194.080383 Da

1,3,7-Trimethyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione

Energy Benefits

Caffeine causes nerve cells to speed up and increase neuron firing. This leads to additional adrenaline produced resulting in extra energy.

Learning Benefits

Caffeine increases dopamine levels, heightening attention to detail. Caffeine also increases acetylcholine levels, specifically in the medial prefrontal cortex, resulting in attention promoting qualities.

Mood Benefits

Caffeine increases levels of serotonin and dopamine leading to an enhanced mood. Dopamine provides a feeling of drive and motivation to get things done.

Synergy

Caffeine and L-Theanine are highly synergistic and result in improvements in sustained attention, reaction time, and task switching. While caffeine alone can make task switching difficult even when the occupying stimulus is not the priority.

Learn More About Caffeine

Caffeine is a stimulant of the Central Nervous System (CNS) which is consumed by 87% of the U.S. population daily. After oral ingestion, caffeine is 100% absorbed within 45 minutes. It is widely known that caffeine consumption causes increased alertness and wakefulness. This is the case for even those consumers who have been deprived of sleep. Caffeine inhibits the molecule adenosine from binding to adenosine receptors effectively raising levels of serotonin and causing nerve cells to speed up and increase neuron firing, thereby preventing lethargy and enhancing mood.[37, 38] Due to this increase in neural activity, additional adrenaline is produced resulting in extra energy. Caffeine alters dopamine levels by slowing the rate of dopamine reabsorption. The neurotransmitter dopamine is most responsible for cognitive alertness, therefore increased dopamine levels would allow for one to be more receptive of stimuli in their environment.

Caffeine also increases acetylcholine levels, specifically in the medial prefrontal cortex, resulting in attention promoting qualities.[39] In a study where participants consumed 3.5 mg/kg of caffeine, while under psychological stress, it was found that adrenaline release was enhanced by 233% in response.[40] Caffeine and L-Theanine are a highly synergistic combination which has been extensively studied. Studies have indicated major improvements in sustaining attention, reaction time, and task switching.[41] The relaxing properties of L-Theanine eliminate the distracting stimuli often experienced from caffeine consumption.[42]

L-Theanine 200MG

Molecular FormulaC7H14N2O3

Average mass174.198 Da

Monoisotopic mass174.100449 Da

N-Ethyl-L-glutamine

Mood Benefits

L-Theanine increases levels of serotonin and dopamine thus influencing an enhanced sense of well-being. Studies have concluded that L-Theanine provides anxiety relief to those users with high baseline anxiety.

Focus Benefits

L-Theanine raises alpha-waves which are associated with attention promoting properties.

Mental Clarity

L-Theanine raises levels of the neurotransmitter GABA. GABA prevents excessive neuronal firing to effectively create a calm state of mind.

Synergy

The relaxing properties of  L-Theanine eliminate the distracting stimuli often experienced from caffeine consumption.

Learn More About L-Theanine

L-Theanine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid found primarily in green tea. Since L-Theanine is less bioavailable when consumed through green tea, better results are experienced from L-Theanine supplements. After oral ingestion of L-Theanine, it crosses the brain blood barrier intact and elevates L-Theanine levels for up to five hours.[43] Increased levels of L-Theanine in the brain have been specifically noted in the hippocampus one hour following oral ingestion.[44] L-Theanine’s most profound benefit is its ability to induce relaxation without sedation. This is in part due to raised levels of the neurotransmitter GABA caused by L-Theanine.[46] GABA is the primary inhibitory neurochemical in the brain which prevents excessive neuronal firing to effectively create a calm state of mind. Persons consuming a 200 mg dose during a study, of which had high baseline anxiety levels, reported anxiety relief as well as improvement in attention.[45] In another study supplementing 200 mg of L-Theanine before a stressful task resulted in a reduction of perceived stress noted by participants.[47] L-Theanine supplementation is also accredited with increasing alpha brain-wave patterns which are associated with relaxation, selective attention mechanisms, and mental alertness.[45]. L-Theanine also increases levels of dopamine and serotonin thus influencing an enhanced mood. Additionally, L-Theanine has proven to enhance vascular responsiveness and promote nitric oxide formation.[48][49] Nitric oxide signals smooth muscles to relax, leading to vasodilatation and increased blood flow. L-Theanine and caffeine are a highly synergistic combination that has been extensively studied. Studies have indicated major improvements in sustained attention, reaction time, and task switching.[41] The relaxing properties of L-Theanine eliminate the distracting stimuli often experienced from caffeine consumption.[42]

Vitamin B5 20MG

(D-Pantothenic Acid)

Molecular FormulaC9H17NO5

Average mass219.235 Da

Monoisotopic mass219.110672 Da

N-[(2R)-2,4-Dihydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutanoyl]-beta-alanine

Energy Benefits

Vitamin B5 is an essential nutrient which plays a major role in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, resulting in increased energy levels.

Synergy

Vitamin B5 is a necessary precursor to synthesize acetylcholine.

Learn More About Vitamin B5

Vitamin B5 is an essential nutrient which plays a major role in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, resulting in increased energy levels. Vitamin B5 is required to synthesize Coenzyme A (CoA), the most active metabolic enzyme in the human body. CoA is necessary for dozens of metabolic processes including the initiation of the TCA cycle (cellular energy) which provides 90% of the body’s energy.[50] Production of the anti-stress hormone cortisol demands CoA. Vitamin B5 and CoA are necessary precursors for the synthesis of Acetylcholine (Ach).[50] Increased levels of Ach are noted to produce sustained attention[4], mental clarity, and memory enhancement. Furthermore, vitamin B5 is needed for fatty acid synthesis.[51] One such fatty acid, DHA, is critical for the formation of nerve cell membranes and therefore has a significant impact on memory and learning.

Vitamin B12 60MCG

(Cyanocobalamin)

Molecular FormulaC63H88CoN14O14P

Average mass1355.365 Da

Monoisotopic mass1354.567383 Da

cyano-[(1R,2S,3S,4Z,7S,8S,9Z,13S,14Z,17R,18R,19R)-2,7,18-tris(2-amino-2-oxo-ethyl)-3,8,13-tris(3-amino-3-oxo-propyl)-17-[3-[[(2R)-2-[[(2R,3S,4R,5S)-5-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazol-1-yl)-4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-3-yl]oxy-oxido-phosphoryl]oxypropyl]amino]-3-oxo-propyl]-1,2,5,7,12,12,15,17-octamethyl-8,13,18,19-tetrahydro-3H-corrin-21-yl]cobalt(1+)

Energy Benefits

Vitamin B12 is involved in the metabolism of every cell in the body and optimizes blood sugar metabolism. Vitamin B12 assists in the synthesis of Succinyl CoA, which is involved in the TCA cycle (cellular energy) responsible for generating 90% of the body’s energy.

Neuroprotection

Vitamin B12 converts 5 Methyltetrahydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate, which is necessary to repair and synthesize DNA. DNA is the macromolecule responsible for transmitting genetic information directly enabling cognition and behavior.

Focus Benefits

Vitamin B12 has been shown to exhibit significant improvements in attention span and concentration. By assisting in energy metabolism, Vitamin B12 benefits extend to heightened focus due to more energy being available for the brain to use.

Learn More About Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 has been shown to exhibit multiple cognitive benefits including improvements in alertness, memory, fluid intelligence, attention span, and concentration. Vitamin B12 is an essential vitamin, responsible for a wide variety of cellular metabolic and biosynthetic processes, effectively increasing energy production. Vitamin B12 has the most complex chemical structure of all vitamins and is involved in the metabolism of every cell in the human body.[52]

Vitamin B12 maintains a balance of homocysteine level as well as optimizes blood sugar metabolism. Homocysteine can be recycled into methionine, a proteinogenic amino acid which may be translated into various important proteins. Methionine is an intermediate to phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC acts as a choline reservoir from which acetylcholine (ACh) will be discharged when necessary. ACh is a neurotransmitter that prompts sustained attention, enhancement of sensory perceptions, and responsiveness to sensory stimuli. Additionally, vitamin B12 converts 5 Methyltetrahydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate yielding significant benefits including the repair of DNA.[54] In an active form of vitamin B12, 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin acts as a cofactor converting Methylmalonyl CoA to Succinyl CoA. Succinyl CoA is involved in the TCA cycle (cellular energy) responsible for generating 90% of the body’s energy.

Vitamin B12 supplementation also helps initiate biosynthesis of fatty acids in the myelin sheath which encompasses nerve cells. Myelin acts as an insulator and facilitates more rapid electrical impulses through axons. In addition, a study supplementing vitamin B12 to elderly patients with Alzheimer’s disease concluded that it prevented brain atrophy (shrinkage).

Vitamin D3 2000IU

(Cholecalciferol)

Molecular FormulaC27H44O

Average mass384.638 Da

Monoisotopic mass384.339203 Da

(3S,5Z,7E)-9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10-trien-3-ol

Neuroprotection

Vitamin D3 confers a protective effect from excitotoxicity-induced neuronal cell death. A Common cause of excitotoxicity-induced cell death is chronic stress.

Mood Benefits

Vitamin D3 blood levels are inversely correlated with depressive symptoms. Vitamin D3 produces significant benefits regarding mood and well-being due to increased serotonin synthesis.

Memory Benefits

By increasing serotonin synthesis vitamin D3 supports conversion of short-term memory to long-term memory.

Learn More About Vitamin D3

Vitamin D3 is 1 of 24 micronutrients critical for human survival associated with increased cognition, immune health, bone health, and wellbeing. 1700 IU daily supplementation is needed to achieve the optimal D3 level for 95 percent of the population. D3 confers a protective effect from excitotoxicity induced neuronal cell death while also preserving neuronal cells.[55][56] Furthermore, vitamin D3 blood levels are inversely correlated with depressive symptoms. One study noted an attenuation of depressive symptoms with dosing of 4000 IU daily for one month followed by 2000 IU daily for two more months. The beneficial results were universal among all 54 participants.[57] Vitamin D3 produces significant benefits regarding mood and wellbeing due to increasing serotonin synthesis. Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase 2, which is transcriptionally activated by vitamin D. During experiments conducted using synthesized DNA vitamin D enhanced the ability of brain cells to produce serotonin anywhere from 2 to 30 times as much.[58] Serotonin has very specific effects on cognition including executive function, learning memory, and relaxation.

References

REFERENCES

1. Ostrovskaya RU, Gudasheva TA, Zaplina AP, Vahitova JV, Salimgareeva MH, Jamidanov RS… et al “Noopept stimulates the expression of NGF and BDNF in rat hippocampus” . Bull Exp Biol Med. (2008) Sep;146(3):334-7.

2. Ostrovskaia RU, Gudasheva TA, Voronina TA, Seredenin SB et al “The original novel nootropic and neuroprotective agent noopept . Eksp Klin Farmakol”. (2002) Sep-Oct;65(5):66-72.

3. Gudasheva TA, Boyko SS, Ostrovskaya RU, Voronina TA, Akparov VK, Trofimov SS, Rozantsev GG, Skoldinov AP, Zherdev VP, Seredenin SB (1997). “The major metabolite of dipeptide piracetam analogue GVS-111 in rat brain and its similarity to endogenous neuropeptide cyclo-L-prolylglycine”. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 22 (3): 245–52. doi:10.1007/BF03189814. PMID 9358206.

4. Himmelheber, AM; Sarter, M; Bruno, JP et al “Increases in cortical acetylcholine release during sustained attention performance in rats”. Brain research. Cognitive brain research (2000) 9 (3): 313–25. doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(00)00012-4. PMID 10808142

5. Jones, BE et al “From waking to sleeping: neuronal and chemical substrates”. Trends in pharmacological sciences (2005) 26 (11): 578–86. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2005.09.009. PMID 16183137.

6. Charles PD, Ambigapathy G, Geraldine P, Akbarsha MA, Rajan KE et al “Bacopa monniera leaf extract up-regulates tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2) and serotonin transporter (SERT) expression: implications in memory formation” . J Ethnopharmacol. (2011) Mar 8;134(1):55-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.045. Epub 2010 Dec 1

7. Vollala VR, Upadhya S, Nayak S et al “Enhanced dendritic arborization of hippocampal CA3 neurons by Bacopa monniera extract treatment in adult rats” . Rom J Morphol Embryol. (2011) ;52(3):879-86.

8. Roodenrys S, Booth D, Bulzomi S, Phipps A, Micallef C, Smoker J et al “Chronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on human memory” . Neuropsychopharmacology. (2002) Aug;27(2):279-81.

9. Stough C, Lloyd J, Clarke J, Downey LA, Hutchison CW, Rodgers T… et al “The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects” . Psychopharmacology (Berl). (2001) Jul;232(13):2427

10. Rai D, Bhatia G, Palit G, Pal R, Singh S, Singh HK et al “Adaptogenic effect of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) . Pharmacol Biochem Behav”. (2003) Jul;75(4):823-30.

11. Chowdhuri DK, Parmar D, Kakkar P, Shukla R, Seth PK, Srimal RC et al “Antistress effects of bacosides of Bacopa monnieri: modulation of Hsp70 expression, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450 activity in rat brain” . Phytother Res. (2002) Nov;16(7):639-45

12. Sheikh N, Ahmad A, Siripurapu KB, Kuchibhotla VK, Singh S, Palit G et al “Effect of Bacopa monniera on stress induced changes in plasma corticosterone and brain monoamines in rats” . J Ethnopharmacol. (2007) May 22;111(3):671-6. Epub 2007 Jan 30

13. Downey LA, Kean J, Nemeh F, Lau A, Poll A, Gregory R… et al “An Acute, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study of 320 mg and 640 mg Doses of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on Sustained Cognitive Performance” . Phytother Res. (2012) Sep;27(9):1407-13. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4864. Epub 2012 Dec 19

14. Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Kumar A, Ghosal S et al “Antioxidant activity of Bacopa monniera in rat frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus” . Phytother Res. (2000) May;14(3):174-9

15. Kamkaew N, Norman Scholfield C, Ingkaninan K, Taepavarapruk N, Chootip K et al “Bacopa monnieri Increases Cerebral Blood Flow in Rat Independent of Blood Pressure” . Phytother Res. (2012) Jan;27(1):135-8. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4685. Epub 2012 Mar 23

16. McGlade E, Locatelli A, Hardy J, Kamiya T, Morita M, Morishita K, Sugimura Y, Yurgelun-Todd D et al “Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women” Food and Nutrition Sciences Vol 3 (6) 769-73 (2012)

17. Giménez R, Raïch J, Aguilar J et al “Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP-choline treatment of aging mice”. British Journal of Pharmacology(Nov 1991) 104 (3): 575–8. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1991.tb12471.x. PMC 1908237. PMID 1839138.

18. López-Coviella I, Agut J, Savci V, Ortiz JA, Wurtman RJ et al “Evidence that 5′-cytidinediphosphocholine can affect brain phospholipid composition by increasing choline and cytidine plasma levels”. Journal of Neurochemistry (Aug 1995) 65 (2): 889–94. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1995.65020889.x. PMID 7616250.

19. Conant R, Schauss AG et al “Therapeutic applications of citicoline for stroke and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly: a review of the literature”. Alternative Medicine Review (Mar 2004) 9 (1): 17–31. PMID 15005642.

20. Babb SM, Wald LL, Cohen BM, Villafuerte RA, Gruber SA, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Renshaw PF et al “Chronic citicoline increases phosphodiesters in the brains of healthy older subjects: an in vivo phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy study”. Psychopharmacology (May 2002) 161 (3): 248–54. doi:10.1007/s00213-002-1045-y. PMID 12021827.

21. Adibhatla RM, Hatcher JF, Dempsey RJ et al “Citicoline: neuroprotective mechanisms in cerebral ischemia”. Journal of Neurochemistry (Jan 2002) 80 (1): 12–23. doi:10.1046/j.0022-3042.2001.00697.x. PMID 11796739.

22. Secades JJ, Lorenzo JL et al “Citicoline: pharmacological and clinical review, 2006 update”. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology (Sep 2006) 28 Suppl B: 1–56. PMID 17171187.

23. Watanabe S, Kono S, Nakashima Y, Mitsunobu K, Otsuki S et al “Effects of various cerebral metabolic activators on glucose metabolism of brain”. Folia Psychiatrica Et Neurologica Japonica (1975) 29 (1): 67–76. PMID 1098982.

24. Trovero F, Gobbi M, Weil-Fuggaza J, Besson MJ, Brochet D, Pirot S et al “Evidence for a modulatory effect of sulbutiamine on glutamatergic and dopaminergic cortical transmissions in the rat brain” . Neurosci Lett. (2000) Sep 29;292(1):49-53

25. Bizot JC, Herpin A, Pothion S, Pirot S, Trovero F, Ollat H et al “Chronic treatment with sulbutiamine improves memory in an object recognition task and reduces some amnesic effects of dizocilpine in a spatial delayed-non-match-to-sample task” . Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (2005) Jul;29(6):928-35

26. C. Perello, Quilmes, RA et al “Sulbutiamine in the treatment of chronic fatigue in multiple sclerosis” (September 29, 2005)

27. Van Reeth O, Majid AS, Kang KD et al “Pharmacologic and therapeutic features of sulbutiamine”. Drugs Today (1999)(Barc) 35 (3): 187–92. PMID 12973384.

28. Trovero F, Gobbi M, Weil-Fuggaza J, Besson MJ, Brochet D, Pirot S et al “Evidence for a modulatory effect of sulbutiamine on glutamatergic and dopaminergic cortical transmissions in the rat brain”. Neurosci Lett (2000) 292 (1):

49–53. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(00)01420-8. PMID 10996447.
29. Matsuda T, Cooper JR et al “Thiamine as an integral component of brain synaptosomal membranes”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (1981) 78 (9): 5886–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.78.9.5886. PMC 348897. PMID 6272323.

30. Bettendorff L, Hennuy B, De Clerck A, Wins P et al “Chloride permeability of rat brain membrane vesicles correlates with thiamine triphosphate content”. Brain Res (1994) 652 (1): 157–60. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(94)90331-X. PMID 7953714.

31. Dolezal V, Tucek S et al “Utilization of citrate, acetylcarnitine, acetate, pyruvate and glucose for the synthesis of acetylcholine in rat brain slices” . J Neurochem. (1981) Apr;36(4):1323-30

32. Cha YS, Choi SK, Suh H, Lee SN, Cho D, Li K et al “Effects of carnitine coingested caffeine on carnitine metabolism and endurance capacity in athletes” . J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). (2001) Dec;47(6):378-84

33. Mehta S et al “ Activation and transportation of fatty acids to the mitochondria via the carnitine shuttle”. (October 6, 2013) Retrieved from http://pharmaxchange.info/press/2013/10/activation-and-transportation-of-fatty-acids-to-the-mitochondria-via-the-carnitine-shuttle-with-animation/

34. Rump TJ, Abdul Muneer PM, Szlachetka AM, Lamb A, Haorei C, Alikunju S… et al “Acetyl-L-carnitine protects neuronal function from alcohol-induced oxidative damage in the brain”. Free Radical Biology & Medicine (2010) 49 (10): 1494–504. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.08.011. PMC 3022478. PMID 20708681.

35. Malaguarnera M, Cammalleri L, Pia Gargante M, Vacante M, Colonna V, and Motta M et al “L-Carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centenarians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial1,2,3”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. (2007) vol. 86 (6) 1738-1744

36. ”. Musicco C, Capelli V, Pesce V, Timperio AM, Calvani M, Mosconi L… et al “Rat liver mitochondrial proteome: changes associated with aging and acetyl-L-carnitine treatment”. 2011 Oct 19;74(11):2536-47. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2011.05.041. Epub 2011 Jun 6.

37. Huang ZL, Urade Y, Hayaishi O et al “The role of adenosine in the regulation of sleep” . Curr Top Med Chem. 2011;11(8):1047-57.

38. Okada M, Kawata Y, Kiryu K, Mizuno K, Wada K, Tasaki H… et al Effects of adenosine receptor subtypes on hippocampal extracellular serotonin level and serotonin reuptake activity . J Neurochem. (1997)Dec;69(6):2581-8.

39. Acquas E, Tanda G, Di Chiara G et al “Differential effects of caffeine on dopamine and acetylcholine transmission in brain areas of drug-naive and caffeine-pretreated rats” . Neuropsychopharmacology. (2002) Aug;27(2):182-93.

40. Lane JD, Adcock RA, Williams RB, Kuhn CM et al “Caffeine effects on cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to acute psychosocial stress and their relationship to level of habitual caffeine consumption” . Psychosom Med. (1990) May-Jun;52(3):320-36.

41. Einöther SJ, Martens VE, Rycroft JA, De Bruin EA et al “L-theanine and caffeine improve task switching but not intersensory attention or subjective alertness” . Appetite. (2010) Apr;54(2):406-9. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2010.01.003. Epub 2010 Jan 15.

42. Owen GN, Parnell H, De Bruin EA, Rycroft JA et al “The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood” . Nutr Neurosci. (2008) Aug;11(4):193-8. doi: 10.1179/147683008X301513.

43. Terashima T, Takido J, Yokogoshi H “Time-dependent changes of amino acids in the serum, liver, brain and urine of rats administered with theanine” . Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. (1999) Apr;63(4):615-8.

44. Tamano H, Fukura K, Suzuki M, Sakamoto K, Yokogoshi H, Takeda A. et al “Preventive effect of theanine intake on stress-induced impairments of hippocamapal long-term potentiation and recognition memory” . Brain Res Bull. (2013) Jun;95:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2013.02.005. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

45. Song CH, Jung JH, Oh JS, Kim KS et al “Effects of Theanine on the Release of Brain Alpha Wave in Adult Males”. Korean J Nutr. 2003 Nov;36(9):918-923. Korean.

46. Kimura R, Murata T et al “Influence of alkylamides of glutamic acid and related compounds on the central nervous system. I. Central depressant effect of theanine” . Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (1971) Jun;19(6):1257-61.

47. Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, Ohira H et al “L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses . Biol Psychol”. (2007) Jan;74(1):39-45. Epub 2006 Aug 22.

48. Peters U, Poole C, Arab L et al “Does tea affect cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis” . Am J Epidemiol. (2001) Sep 15;154(6):495-503.

49. Lorenz M, Urban J, Engelhardt U, Baumann G, Stangl K, Stangl V et al “Green and black tea are equally potent stimuli of NO production and vasodilation: new insights into tea ingredients involved” . Basic Res Cardiol. (2009) Jan;104(1):100-10. doi: 10.1007/s00395-008-0759-3. Epub 2008 Dec 20.

50. Gropper, S. S, Smith, J. L., Groff, J. L. (2009). Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage learning.

51. Voet, D., Voet, J.G., Pratt, C.W. (2006). Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level, 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

52. Yamada, Kazuhiro (2013). “Chapter 9. Cobalt: Its Role in Health and Disease”. In Astrid Sigel, Helmut Sigel and Roland K. O. Sigel. Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences 13. Springer. pp. 295–320. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_9.

53. Vogiatzoglou A, Refsum H, Johnston C, et al. (2008). “Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly”. Neurology 71 (11): 826–32. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000325581.26991.f2. PMID 18779510.

54. Banerjee RV, Matthews RG (1990). “Cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase”. The FASEB Journal 4 (5): 1450–9. PMID 2407589.

55. LD Brewer, V Thibault, KC Chen, MC Langub, PW Landfield, NM Porter et al “Vitamin D hormone confers neuroprotection in parallel with downregulation of L-type calcium channel expression in hippocampal neurons .” J Neurosci. (2001) Jan 1;21(1):98-108.

56. PW Landfield, NL Cadwallader et al “ Long-term treatment with calcitriol (1,25(OH)2 vit D3) retards a biomarker of hippocampal aging in rats .” Neurobiol Aging. (1998) Sep-Oct;19(5):469-77.

57. G Högberg, SA Gustafsson, T Hällström, T Gustafsson, B Klawitter,M Petersson et al “Depressed adolescents in a case-series were low in vitamin D and depression was ameliorated by vitamin D supplementation .” Acta Paediatr. (2012) Jul;101(7):779-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2012.02655.x. Epub 2012 Mar 27.

58. RP Patrick, BN Ames et al “Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior.” FASEB J. 2015 Jun;29(6):2207-22. doi: 10.1096/fj.14-268342. Epub 2015 Feb 24.

 

Additional Reading Resources

https://examine.com/supplements/cdp-choline/

https://examine.com/supplements/l-carnitine/

https://examine.com/supplements/bacopa-monnieri/

https://examine.com/supplements/sulbutiamine/

https://examine.com/supplements/theanine/

https://examine.com/supplements/caffeine/

https://examine.com/supplements/vitamin-b12

https://examine.com/supplements/vitamin-b5/

https://examine.com/supplements/vitamin-d/

 

 

Logo Of Cerebral Key